Are Jesus and Lucifer the "morning stars" in Job 38:7? How and when did Lucifer become Satan?
In Job 38:7, the "morning stars" sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy. Jesus is called the morning star, and Lucifer is also called the morning star. Is it Jesus and Lucifer who are the "morning stars" mentioned in Job 38:7?
Also, how could Lucifer have been so evil if he was a "morning star"? How and when did he become Satan?
This is a topic that has a number of interpretations. I will tell you, briefly, what my interpretation is, and I will address your second set of questions first.
In Scripture, "star" can refer to "angel" (Numbers 24:7; Revelation 1:20, 9:1, 12:4; and other places). A "morning star" can be considered to be a good angel, full of light, who does God's will..
The name Lucifer comes from the Latin lucem ferre or "light bearer." In fact, Lucifer was anointed as a guardian cherub, and he was blameless from the day he was created, until wickedness was found in him (Ezekiel 28:14,15). I believe that before Lucifer fell from grace, he was a good, wise, and enlightened angel.
It is unclear how long after Lucifer's creation that wickedness and pride were found in him, and when he envied and coveted God's supreme and unlimited authority, power, position, knowledge and wisdom. He also had the delusion that all of these traits could be contained within himself, apart from God, and even harbored a self-entitlement mindset that they should be. Consequently, God rejected him, and Lucifer was transformed into Satan: the adversary of God and the deceiver of other angels and of humanity.
Presumably, all of this took place after the foundation of the earth was laid (Job 38:4), since Lucifer was the model of perfection, full of wisdom and perfect in beauty, when he was placed in Eden, with every precious stone adorning him (Ezekiel 28:12,13). So this would have been before he, as Satan, tempted Eve and Adam.
Whether his "transition" from Lucifier to Satan occurred before or after the creation of Adam (and then Eve) is unknown. Perhaps the creation of Adam, a "son" of God, is the event that instilled anger into the mind of Lucifer. He probably felt that God's attention should be solely on him (pride). Then he perceived that God's main focus suddenly was turned to someone else, Adam, who certainly was not as magnificent, brilliant, and exceptional as himself. It would have been the classic case of jealousy, which is the anger and resentment that results from being "replaced."
It also could have been the primary reason why Satan tempted Eve and Adam, in hopes that God would destroy them for succumbing to that temptation. Then, in the mind of Lucifer/Satan, his place as the center of God's attention and interest would have been restored. If this is so, it backfired on him, because he never has regained his high standing in heaven again. This would explain why he has been on a rampage against humanity since then, as well as why his primary goal was to destroy Jesus—the only begotten Son of God—on the cross, knowing that Jesus could (and would) become the Savior and King of the world.
In any case, once Lucifer/Satan failed to maintain an honorable status, because iniquity and conceit had been found in him, he no longer could be considered to be a "morning star" (other than in his own eyes and in the eyes of those he has duped into venerating him). Ever since then, his goal has been to raise his throne above all the other "stars" or angels of God (Isaiah 14:12,13).
The term "morning star" has been given to the planet Venus, which is seen at dawn, even though Venus isn't really a star. However, once the sun rises, the light of Venus is overcome by the light of the sun, the real morning star. That is, Venus' light lasts only until the true star, the sun, appears with its extremely bright light. Likewise, when Jesus the Son returns, His true Light will vanquish the false, counterfeit light of Satan, who only masquerades as an angel of light (2 Corinthians 1:14) or "morning star."
In Old Covenant Scripture, the "Angel of the Lord" is mentioned several places (Genesis 16:7,9,11, 22:11,15, 31:11, 48:16; Exodus 3:2; Numbers 22:22-27; Judges 6:12, 13:3,20,21; and other places). I am convinced that this is the pre-incarnate Jesus. Of course, in the form of an angel or messenger of God, He is the highest and brightest Angel, full of Light. Thus, He is the most brilliant and brightest "Morning Star" (Revelation 22:16).
Lucifer and the pre-incarnate Jesus may or may not have been among the "morning stars" of Job 38:7. Again, I see "morning stars" as being good angels, full of light, who do God's will. Lucifer and the pre-incarnate Jesus were not the only two good angels, full of light/Light. There have been many of these—such as Michael and Gabriel, for instance. And probably many, if not all, of these angels sang together, and shouted for joy (Job 38:7), when God laid the foundation of the earth (38:4) but before Lucifer's self-deception and sin changed him into Satan.
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