Here are other theories about the identities of Gog and Magog:
- Hashemite Kingdom Theory: The Islamic Nations will come against Israel either by an Iraqi-led, Jordanian led, or Turkish led coalition. The enemy from the north refers to the areas of Syria, Turkey, and Iraq. These Islamic nations make up the lands occupied by Magog, Gomer, Togarmah, Meshech and Tubal.
- Caucus Theory: Gog and Magog are the Arab nations in an alliance with the Muslim republics of the former Soviet Union. This theory leaves out most of Russia, and includes only the southern part.
- All Europe theory: Gog and Magog are the sons of Japeth, thus the originators of the European races. Gog and Magog, therefore, indicates all of Europe. This is not a widely held theory, for which there is little support.
- Russian Theory: The Hebrew word “rosh” in (Ezekiel 38:3) is identified with Russia, “Tubal” with Tiblisi or Tobolsk and “Meshech” with Moscow; therefore, Gog and Magog refers to Russia. This is one of the most commonly held views and is based on a different interpretation of the Hebrew word Rosh (used as a noun rather than an adjective), similarities in the pronunciation of words, and the Greek translation of Rosh referring to a tribe of people found in what is now Russia.
- Indo-European Theory: Gog and Magog include the nations descending from Japheth: Russia, the Caucasus(Turkey), Iraq, and the Islamic republics of Central Asia. The coalition is an alliance of Arab nations, Muslim republics, Georgia, southern Russia and the Black sea area.
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